Christians ask “Is the world running down?”
That’s the conclusion that the second law of thermodynamics, adapted to the universe as a whole, would have you believe. Rather, that’s the inescapable implication of the fate of the universe that modern “atheistic” science has generally confessed faith in.
What does such an idea mean for Christianity?
This is the question Gary North directly addressed in his book Is The World Running Down: Crisis In The Christian Worldview.
The second law of thermodynamics is all about entropy. “Entropy” is a scientific measure of the amount of “disorder” in any given system. Engineers measure and apply the “change of entropy” in thermodynamics when designing modern systems, such as refrigerators, air conditioners, and car engines.
A scientific definition taken from a freshman college physics textbook describes entropy in this way:
“If an irreversible process occurs in a closed system, the entropy S of the system always increases; it never decreases.”
What is an irreversible process? A simple, classic example is the breaking of an egg. If you drop a freshly-laid chicken egg onto a concrete surface and it breaks, you cannot put the egg back together again and return it to a state identical to just before you dropped it.
In such a system, the entropy has increased. Energy has been spent to bring about a one-way — irreversible — process. The system has moved from a state of order to disorder. Unless there is some external source which injects more energy into the system, the process cannot be reversed.
What philosophical scientists have done is speculated that perhaps the universe is a closed system. If so, then there is no external source of energy. That means that eventually, all order in this universe will break down into disorder and dissolve into useless, expended heat energy.
This is referred to as the “heat death” of the universe, and it remains a popular theory today.
SOCIAL THEORY BUILT UPON THE SECOND LAW
In the 1980s the evangelical Christian world was being wooed by social entropy theorist Jeremy Rifkin. In his book, North is addressing two primary groups of people: those being lured away by Jeremy Rifkin; and the Christian scientists who advanced a scientific view of the six-day creation but utilized the second law of thermodynamics as a foundational tool in attacking Darwinian science. This group was at war with evolutionist scientists — which are practically all of modern scientists.
North lays out the implications of adopting the second law of thermodynamics as the foundations of anything: pessimism [pg. 40]. He argues that since science has so radically re-shaped Western civilization in the last several hundred years, people are going to pay attention to the theories coming from the science guild. The science guild is influenced by social theory. As a result, society — not just Christians — has further embraced this pessimism, which continues to motivate popular science, and the result has been, and continues to be, the slow crumbling of Western civilization.
To build a basic framework for interpreting the issues, he describes three primary worldviews that operate today: Power Religion, Dominion Religion, and Escapist Religion. Power religion is the classic grasp for ultimate earthly power by autonomous man who denies the existence of God. The result is a massive state bureaucracy that tries to control all aspects of all of men’s lives.
Dominion Religion is the orthodox Christian faith. It calls men to be obedient to the sovereign, triune God. It proclaims the reliability of the Church creeds. As North writes, “It proclaims that through the exercise of saving faith, and through ethical conformity to God’s revealed law, regenerate men will increase the extent of their dominion over the earth.”
He emphasizes that covenantal religion is always openly creedal. As Jesus said, “‘I have spoken openly to the world,’ Jesus replied. ‘I always taught in synagogues or at the temple, where all the Jews come together. I said nothing in secret.'” (John 18:20)
In contrast, the power religionists never announce their goals in the beginning, and only much later in their domination will they reveal their true agendas once they’ve captured enough influence and power. The Nazis followed this model.
ESCAPE FROM REALITY
Escapist religions are the primary subject of this book. They are reactions against the Power Religions. Members of this group despise power in any form. They retreat into the isolation of their minds and the non-physical realms of “virtue” or ideas. Examples are pious Christians or Gnostics.
Escapist religions include environmentalist-types: they want to see man and nature co-existing together. Ideally they may live in harmony, but if push comes to serve then man must submit himself to nature — better to kill off man and reduce man’s productivity than to encroach one more foot upon glorious mother nature. Jeremy Rifkin with his entropic social theory is a member of this group.
Rifkin was (and still is) a social theorist who developed and promoted a social theory built upon the bedrock of the second law of thermodynamics. Entropy was the engine that powered his theories.
Rifkin was a popular author, publishing a number of best-selling books. In the 1980s he appealed to the idea of entropy to justify man’s urgent need to slow or reverse our rates of energy “consumption” so that we may slow our inevitable drift into the final irreversibility of cosmic entropic increase.
Using the second law of thermodynamics as his backdrop, Rifkin rails against our energy “addiction.” For example, he says “Technologies, by their very nature, are expropriating; they extract, they distill, they process, they organize, they convert, they consume, they regiment.” He goes on to say that “There is an acknowledgement that some form of expropriation is always necessary. All things desire to live, and it is a law of nature that for something to live, something else must die.” [pg. 100-101]
For him to maintain consistency with his worldview, he would have to call for the death of all living things, for the very process of living increases the disorder (entropy) of the universe. But he doesn’t. He draws the line at the point where too much restriction would kill off the human race.
Why not be consistent with his worldview? Because his aim is the control of most men at the hands of a small, elite order of men. At his heart, he’s a Baal worshiper grasping for earthly power over all men.
North wrote his book (“hastily”, as he has said) to address Rifkin’s mass appeal to Christians. North asserts that Rifkin was a self-aware wolf in sheep’s clothing, deliberately piercing the weak spots in modern pessimistic Christian social theory to gain followers:
“But Rifkin is more dangerous than simply another zero-growth humanist, for he is self-conscious in his attempt to undermine Christians’ faith in the earthly future. He is self-conscious in his attempt to call the dominion covenant into question. He is self-conscious in his denial of future historical progress. In this sense, he is radically anti-Christian.” [pg. 164]
He builds his case quite well by quoting Rifkin liberally. He identifies Rifkin’s initial “way in” with conservative Christians — by attacking liberalism. Though one may read Rifkin’s books and miss his presuppositions about the world, North has sifted through Rifkin’s materials — several books’ worth — and produced direct quotations that reveal Rifkin’s divergent philosophy. He has pointed out the internal inconsistencies in Rifkin’s worldview. For example, Rifkin is pessimistic, but which pessimism does he favor? One founded upon Western “rational” science of a world running down into the jaws of Entropy, or “the escapist bliss of anti-rational, anti-scientific Eastern mysticism”? [pg. 105] Rifkin can’t make up his mind.
So why was Rifkin so able to appeal to millions of Christians with his anti-Christian social philosophy?
Pessimistic eschatalogical (“end-times”) views among Christians tend to fill them with doubt and dread for the future. It leads them to abandon hope in the healing power of the Gospel on Earth and to question the authority of Christ on earth, even though He said that “all power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.” (Matthew 28:18)
The “rapture” Christians fall into this camp, waiting for an emergency airlift by Christ to remove them from the increasingly evil world that they live in. [pg. 43]
These beliefs tend to render Christians ineffective in taking the initiative in bringing forth cultural change. Rather, they allow (pagan) culture to change them.
They have escaped from the responsibility of the Great Commission through a form of modern hands-off pietism. In this pietous philosophy, Christ is all about changing your heart, and His authority is limited to church on Sundays. This is a spiritual transformation only. Authority in all other areas of culture — art, science, politics, economics, education, justice, laws, etc. — has been ceded to the secular humanists. It’s really a modern update of Gnosticism, a heretical opponent to Christianity that arose in various sects during the days of the early church.
Hands-off Christians are revolting against maturity in a flight from humanity, emphasizing that they need to, first and foremost, “share Christ to the world” or “build up the Church.” But they don’t want to ever build up — or rather, rebuild — civilization. [pg. 44]
Rifkin deliberately sought to capitalize on this Christian pessimism. He uses the language of religion to disguise a philosophy of death behind a veil of false optimism:
“This book is about hope: the hope that comes from shattering false illusions and replacing them with new truths.” [pg. 105]
North, alarmed at the immense popularity of Rifkin’s books among the evangelical Christian crowd, wrote this book to expose Rifkin’s nefarious tactics of masquerading as a prophet of hope to a Christian crowd who has abandoned it, making him able to slip in and further undermine their faith. North points out the inevitable hopelessness and social decline that Rifkin’s theories will lead to.
But more importantly, he proposed an alternative solution: a future based upon legitimate Biblical hope. Being a post-millennial Christian, he proposed a positive outlook on life that Christians should take comfort in. This is really nothing more than a return to the orthodox Christian faith that the Puritans held. They came to America to advance God’s kingdom, to “build Heaven on Earth.”  They laid America’s Christian foundation, albeit one that has been slowly eroded by an increasingly truant Church.
This post-millennial hope had become an alien idea by the 1980’s. Dispensationalism, invented around 1830, had really taken hold by this time. This is an “end-times” view that expects history to become progressively more-and-more evil as the Church is repressed to even greater ends by the Kingdom of Satan. The Church awaits the day when Christ will “rapture” His church, and all of the faithful will disappear from Earth in an instant, leaving it to the heathens and unregenerate. A tribulation period is supposed to follow that will result in approximately 2/3 of modern Israel being slaughtered at the hands of Anti-Christ.
This group of Christians takes a futuristic view of the Book of Revelation. All of the judgments unleashed in it, foretold by St. John, have yet to come to pass. But once things get bad enough, Christ will remove his people from the earth in a flash, unleash the Great Tribulation for 7 years, and come back at the end to squash Satan’s kingdom and rule for 1000 years on Earth — presumably through a top-down bureaucracy that will be much better than any that man or Pharaoh could ever put in place.
Needless to say, this eschatalogical outlook is pessimistic in the near-term, meaning “today.” It encourages Christians to speed up the demise of the modern world so that the day of the Rapture will come quickly. It means that if Christians got involved in politics and reversed the terrible state of humanistic oppression it would only slow the inevitable.
The fascination of prophecy draws the interest of Christians better than any fiction ever could — even though that’s what it is — fiction.
During the 1970’s and 1980’s Hal Lindsay wrote several prophetic books predicting the end times, beginning with “The Late Great Planet Earth” in 1970 which has sold over 28 million copies. In it, he predicted that the Great Tribulation may occur in the 1980’s. He re-affirmed Armageddon would occur in the 1980’s in his 1983 book “Countdown to Armageddon.” When that failed to materialize, he wrote another book in 1994 whose title summarized his next prophecy: “Planet Earth: 2000 A.D., Will Mankind Survive?”
The answer to the question posed in Linsday’s book’s title is obvious: this review is written in 2012. It’s not the Biblical tribulation we’re all suffering great consternation over, but the Mayan end-times prophecy dated to occur on December 21, 2012 that’s up next on our radar.
Certainly this book, and other books that North wrote, were meant to provide a scholarly, heavily-footnoted reply to pop-culture Christian fiction thinly veiling itself as prophecy. North gets right into the face of dispensational Christians in this book, both warning them of Rifkin’s evil, subversive philosophy but also criticizing their hands-off attitude.
ILLUMINATING HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND ITS SANITY
In the book’s first chapter, North takes an interesting journey into the world of modern science: quantum physics. This is perhaps one of the most entertaining and informative chapters in the entire book — something I don’t say lightly. Describing the theories of quantum physics to the lay person is no easy task, but North deals with the topic admirably and with, in a revealing moment or two, some humor.
He attempts to prove his point in the first chapter, specifically that “modern science has lost its mind” because it has abandoned the Christian worldview upon which it was built.
North opens chapter one with a question: How can the mind of man grasp the nature of Nature? He quotes physicist and Nobel-winner Eugene Wigner, who asked why mathematics, the product of man’s mental artistry, is so useful in predicting the events of nature’s independent environment.
To a Christian, as North writes, the answer is simple: man is made in God’s image. He notes that this is not an acceptable answer to humanists. Newton, though not a trinitarian, nevertheless was comfortable explaining the universe in terms of a God who sustained it in His eternal providence. Modern humanist science, however, is not. As a result, they turn to the futility of their darkened, foolish minds and generate no shortage of competent absurdities to justify their worldview.
North begins in Chapter One by discussing the importance of three key Christian doctrines that led to the development of modern science, tracing the roots of modern science to the middle ages. He notes that Christians are rarely told about these facts. He provides several references to support his claims; they’re certainly not empty claims, and to refute them one is forced to follow the footnotes to the source and formulate an attack from there.
He argues in this first chapter that as modern science has steadily abandoned these Christian doctrines, it has become more and more irrational: “The twentieth century has abandoned the stable, rational worldview of late-nineteenth-century physical science.” [pg.14]
This is why, he says, that Christians who attempt to appeal to natural law theory in defense of his worldview is fighting a losing battle because modern science has pretty well abandoned this “old” and outdated theory.
He provides some supporting history to support his assertion that natural law theory is the product of Greek philosophies and Christian compromise.
He discusses popular concepts such as Schrodinger’s Cat, the speed of light, the law of gravity, and the once-proposed theory of ether. He traces the increasingly irrational foundation of modern science from Newton to the philosopher Immanuel Kant, on up to the compromise of modern Christians with natural law theory and the eventual demolition of this old worldview at the hands of Darwinian evolution.
He demonstrates that around the 1920’s modern science abandoned the naturalistic worldview of Newtonian physics to the promise of probability produced by random, irrational quantum physics. He argues that Newton’s idea of the universe was really the result of Newton borrowing the Christian worldview and trimming its maker down a bit to his liking — a single “clockmaker” god who set the universe in motion and bound it with natural laws before he left it alone instead of the personal, triune God of Christianity.
He illustrates the insane universe that atheistic science, since steadily abandoning the Christian worldview, has created. Modern physics tells us that everything in this universe is nothing more than a statistical wave function; the smallest elements of matter are governed by the only remaining constant: the law of randomness. Since all physical objects are composed of these constituent elements, we are all no more than a statistical wave function.
If no one is around to see us, then we do not exist. Until an external observer actually observes anything, then the unseen physical world exists in an indeterminate state of probability.
He points out that this state of affairs was so poor, irrational, and so unnacceptable that Einstein felt compelled to state the obvious in 1934: “Belief in an external world independent of the perceiving subject is the basis of all natural science.”
Schrodinger so disagreed with the irrationality inherit in the idea that we “make our own reality” that he invented the thought experiment now affectionately known as “Schrodinger’s cat.” The experiment backfired, as North documents, and Schrodinger later wished he had never proposed it.
A specifically intriguing discussion takes place about Irish physicist John Stewart Bell. Bell developed a proof in the 1960’s that supposedly solved some of quantum theory’s biggest problems, but in doing so he postulated “non-local influences” that implied that information can travel faster than Einstein’s one universal constant: the speed of light. North points out that it was its characteristic as a constant that shoved God into the very distant past because it is this assumption that, more than others, leads to the idea of a universe billions of years old. Now that we’ve conveniently removed God, we can now start tweaking the speed of light to suit our newest fancies.
The main point he attempts to get across is this: as modern science has steadily abandoned the Christian worldview upon which it was founded, it has become increasingly irrational. Quantum physics does not reconcile with classical physics. It can be argued that it does not easily reconcile with reality.
As a result of this decline in rationality, modern science has begun to look much more like eastern mysticism, proposing endless cycles of expanding-and-contracting universes, for example — a fusion of modern science and ancient pagan ideas. The result is a universe of endless expansion and contraction, the modern pagan idea of cyclical time: endless loops of creation and destruction.
Such ideas — any ridiculous explanation, actually — are proposed in an endeavor to explain a universe that presents regularities (such as why the sun should rise tomorrow just as it did today, or why when I drop a tennis ball this time it won’t fall “upwards” but will fall towards the earth like it did last time) without invoking a personal God who sustains every element of His creation by His divine providence. (We typically call this predictability the “uniformity of nature”.)
EARLY PESSIMISM OF CREATION SCIENCE
He argues that Christians have failed society by not developing and presenting a purely Christian view of science. Instead we continue to lean on a mix of Christian presuppositions and Greek humanism. He illustrates quite clearly how this compromise has gotten us to the trouble we’re in today.
He criticizes the Christian scientists for trying to wield the humanists’ own tools against them — primarily, the second law of thermodynamics. Both camps appealed to the second law to justify their arguments, but such an argument is a waste of time to begin with, North writes. Creation scientists just adapt the same message of pessimism. For example, he quotes from a flyer:
“The creationist realizes that the world is growing old around him. He understands that things tend to run down, to age, to die. The creationist does not look for the world to improve, but to crumble slowly — as in erosion, decay, and aging.”
As North notes, “This is a philosophy of self-conscious defeat, a cry of despair.” [pg. 71]
Christians should center their scientific arguments upon the greatest example of the violation of all “natural laws”: the resurrection of Jesus Christ in history. Focusing on this single event brings the debate to a head.
To provide a starting point for Christian scientists in the future, he discusses the Biblical concept of covenental regularity: the promise God made to us that this world tomorrow will behave as it does today so that we can make sense of it, plan for the future, and fulfill the dominion covenant established by God for us originally in Genesis 1:28 and later renewed by Christ at the Great Commission.
He suggests that we should promote the idea that, as man and society becomes ethically conformed to Christ in history, God will steadily roll back the curse of creation. He references the hope of long life, for example, prophesied in Isaiah 65. He wants us to focus on the ethical connection between cause-and-effect and stop playing under the rules of the humanists.
He summarizes: “In short, it is a waste of effort to attempt a scientifically acceptable refutation of twentieth-century physical science by means of an argument based on nineteenth-century concepts of physical cause and effect.”
LEGACY AND CONCLUSION
The question of the book’s legacy (and legitimacy) becomes this: since this book was written in 1988 (24 years ago), how has it held up? Has modern science resolved its underlying irrationality? Have scientists given up their quest for faster-than-light, non-local quantum relationships? Has Jeremy Rifkin fallen off into obscurity? Have Creation Scientists abandoned the second law of thermodynamics as their underlying foundation and adopted the resurrection of Christ?
North surely gets his point across: Christians should abandon the legacy of humanist “natural laws” and our bondage to the Second Law of Thermodynamics and embrace the resurrection of Jesus Christ as the starting point in all things. We should center our worldview and our science around that.
Perhaps sad to say, North’s ideas are revolutionary, even today. For a Christian to assert the truth of the six-day creation in the face of overwhelming numbers of vocal modern scientists is to light a candle in a storm. But Christ never told us that our task would be easy; He told us to pick up our own crosses and suffer with Him (Matthew 16:24). North provides a scholarly body of evidence and research to build up a Christian’s confidence in taking such a path.
A brief survey of the Institute for Creation Research’s website reveals signs of improvement. One of their tenets reads: “That the redemption was completely efficacious is assured by His bodily resurrection from the dead and ascension into heaven; the resurrection of Christ is thus the focal point of history, assuring the consummation of God’s purposes in creation.” [Emphasis added]
There is no mention of “entropy” or the Second Law Of Thermodynamics. There are articles about entropy, but recent research has set off to attack the biological justifications of evolution and the methodologies of “measuring” the “old” age of the earth, and to build up a scientific body of evidence supporting Noah’s global flood.
GET YOUR ORTHODOXY HERE
By the time the reader finishes the book, he will have a very clear understanding of the links between religion and science and the ethical relationship between cause-and-effect. He will also get a strong dose of orthodox Christianity that may come as a breath of fresh air. North demonstrates that Christians can — and should — in fact be quite intellectual. All of his books prove this.
If anything, a criticism may be found that he spends more time discussing the link between religion and social theory than he does the status of the creation scientists. This is probably due to his background as a historian, and not a scientist. Also, North clearly believes that social theory must change before science can change, and he provides much supporting evidence for this claim.
HOW THE HIPPIES SAVED PHYSICS
In the years since, other works have been produced that confirm his thesis. For example, in 2011, a book, written by author David Kaiser, was published that substantiates North’s claim that culture influences science. It also bolsters his assertion that modern science is becoming increasingly irrational; its foundational religious presuppositions more apparent.
The book’s title alone gives it all away: How the Hippies Saved Physics: Science, Counterculture, and the Quantum Revival. It’s about a group of physicists who defied the rational imperative of their forefathers to just “Shut up and calculate,” and who instead took the initiative to philosophize and incorporate those philosophies into their quantum physics research.
The research tendencies of these modern enlightened, “tuned in” physicists drew direct parallels to Isaac Newton’s own secret compulsions over 200 years earlier. Just as Newton spent half of his time, if not more, practicing the dark arts of alchemy while simultaneously developing “legitimate” science, such as calculus, gravitational laws, and electromagnetism, Kaiser notes in his book that members of the Fundamental Fysiks group “threw themselves headlong into New Age alchemy, even as they pursued serious questions at the heart of quantum theory.”
It was their New Age occultic pursuits in psychokinesis, clairvoyance, and other supernatural phenomenon that drove their interest in and development of quantum physics. It was their religious pursuit of “oneness” and “leap of being” that led them to make Buddhist connections to Bell’s “non-local entanglements.” As one of the Fundamental “Fysikists noted, “Bell’s theorem gives precise physical content to the motto, ‘we are all one.'”
The classical physicists, such as Einstein, were disturbed at the implications of non-local uniformities: signals or interactions that travel faster than the speed of light. This possibility was thrilling for the New Age mystical physicists; they saw only wonder and excitement. Where such a person with a worldview founded upon monistic or dualistic religious presuppositions might look at Bell’s “non-localities” and see a connection to the oneness of the universe and an escape hatch from a pessimistic reality, a Christian should see something else. As North notes in his book, “Three centuries ago, they were called the voice of God.” [p. 25]
Modern science maintains its irrationality. An article from 2009 confirms that the irrationalism that has replaced the foundation of modern physics as North described in his first chapter remains intact. “The results of measurements in quantum mechanics are intrinsically unpredictable, according to the theory of quantum mechanics, and yet still contain very strong correlations, in contradiction with classical physics.”
What about Rifkin? He’s still at it: same end-game, updated vocabulary, new victims. In his latest book, The Third Industrial Revolution, Rifkin attacks modern economics and hails the green movement’s march into a “post-carbon” world. He has maintained his underlying entropic social theory but has appropriated the vocabulary of today’s latest crises and infused it into his latest appeal. From a free excerpt available online:
In fact, [economists] actually give us a false sense of how economic activity unfolds because they don’t take into consideration the passage of time and the irreversibility of events. In Newton’s cosmology, all mechanical processes are, in theory, reversible… But real economic activity is all about the irreversibility of events—how energy and material resources are harnessed, transformed, utilized, used up, and discarded.
The reason most economists just don’t get it is that they fail to understand that all economic activity is borrowing against nature’s energy and material reserves. If that borrowing draws down nature’s bounty faster than the biosphere can recycle the waste and replenish the stock, the accumulation of entropic debt will eventually collapse whatever economic regime is harnessing the resources.
Reconceptualizing economic theory is no longer merely an interesting intellectual exercise, but an urgent task if we are to develop the appropriate tools to expedite our transition into a post-carbon future.
While it’s certainly legitimate to attack modern economists (Keynesians) because their theories of cause-and-effect don’t actually predict cause-and-effect, Rifkin would have us “reformulate” our economic theory completely, throwing out the free-market as established by Adam Smith and no-doubt replacing it with some production-diminishing, zero-growth society of modern Baal worshippers.
Christians should be in place and ready to take charge when the modern Western economy descends into crisis. It’s already visibly coming undone before the eyes of the world. There are “emergency summits” every weekend in Europe as they try to figure out how to hold the “United States of Europe” together. They won’t be able to, but the politicians try.
[As a side-note, North has devoted his life to developing replacement theory for when the world comes looking for solutions after Keynesian economies collapse. He has written a 31-volume economic commentary on the Bible in his quest to develop a Christian theory of economics.]
What about dispensationalism? North asserted throughout the 1980’s and early 1990’s that dispensationalism was on the decline primarily because of its successive string of failed prophecies. While it still hangs around as a major philosophy, it is an increasingly fractured movement that is beginning to slowly adopt a more post-millennial outlook. It’s primary promoter now is the fiction series Left Behind. The movement has declined from being supported by a body of poor scholarship to being supported by a work of fiction.
There is hope in Christ and the resurrection. The “New World Order” will not materialize (Exodus 20:5-6), nor will the “antichrist.” The New World Order will collapse, and it’s visibly coming apart at the seams today. When these things don’t appear, Christians are going to be left looking around for answers. This is why North calls for a new Reformation founded upon these five key principles:
1) The doctrine of the absolute sovereignty of God
2) God’s hierarchical covenants
3) Biblical law
4) Van Til’s presuppositional apologetic method
5) And optimism about the long-run earthly future
This means we also need a new scientific paradigm based on these five principles. We should no longer be bound by the “inevitable” fate of the universe prophesied by atheistic science.
When Christians decide to step out of their withdrawn shell and take charge as Christ has commanded us, the glory of the Kingdom of Heaven will be made increasingly manifest on Earth. There will be much cause for celebration, indeed!
1. Halliday, Resnick, Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Ed. (New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) p. 483.
2. Kenneth Hopper and William Hopper, The Puritan Gift (New York, NY: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, 2010) p. 4.
4. Ephesians 4:18 – “Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart” (KJV)
8. Kaiser, How The Hippies Saved Physics, p. xxiv